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Cubreta Language Official Website

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Welcome

Cubreta is an international auxiliary language based on important languages like English and Latin, made by Arash Peyvandi in 2011-2012.

Overview

In Cubreta, words always retain their original form, regardless of their function in a sentence. Thus, the same word can function as a verb, noun, adjective or preposition. Grammatical functions are taken over by a limited number of operator words and by the word order (syntax). Subject-Verb-Object order is the standard word order, and "adjectives" usually precede "nouns", and the "verbs" follow the tense particles and the "adverbs".

Cubreta is written with the Latin alphabet without special characters, there are some double and triple vowels (like au or ue) or consonants (like sc, sz, gn and scz). There is no X and W in Cubreta language. Most words in Cubreta are taken from Proto-Indo-European_language roots, while some are taken from Japanese and Chinese.


Alphabet and phonology












/p/ p     /b/ b          
/a/ or /æ/ a                
/ʃʒ/ scz 
/t/ t     /d/ d /i/ or /ɪ/ i /χ/
/ɡ/ g     /k/ k /u/ u /ʃ/ sc
/m/ m     /n/ 1 n /e/ or /ɛ/ e /tʃ/ c
/f/ f     /v/ v /ɔ/ or /o/ o /ʒ/ sz
/s/ s     /z/ z /e/ or not pronounced ue /tʃ/ ti
/h/ h     /dʒ/ j /ʌ/ au /ʃ/ sh
/r/ r     /l/ l /ɔ/ ao /tʃh/ ch




/ɛ/ ie /jn/ gn




/æ/ or /ɛ/ ae /ij/} ell, il
1The practice of pronouncing n before a velar sound (g, q or k) as /ŋ/ is used in order to simplify pronunciation.
2First, pronounce /ʃ/, then /ʒ/. Combination of sc and sz
3It can be pronounce /h/ if the speaker is unable to pronounce /χ/, but it is uncommon.


Accent & Verbal Inflection

The stress/accent should be placed on the first vowel unless the word ends in a vowel ( or "ar","er","or" and "il" at the end). If this is the case the stress should be placed on the last vowel before the last consonant.

Vocal inflection in Cubreta is generally comparable to that of English- there usually is a rising inflection before a comma, semicolon, or terminal if interrogative (that is, if it is a question, the voice tends to "go upward" towards the end). A falling inflection is to occur before a full stop.

Punctuation

Full-stops end sentences. They can be the normal full stop (.), the interrogative point (?), exclamation mark (!), and, theoretically, the interrobang.
Semi-colon separates clauses, principal and subordinate.
Colon precedes items of a catalogue. If three or more items occur in a row, they should be separated with a comma and, prior to the final item, the word "on" or "o" (and).
Fe stude: biologi, kemi, on Français.
Comma separates items from each other.

Grammar

Personal Pronouns

Person English (Nominative) English (Accusative) Cubreta (Nominative) Cubreta (Accusative)
1st Singular I Me Mer Me
2nd Singular You You Cer Ce
3rd Singular (Male) He Him Her He
3rd Singular (Female) She Her Scier Scie
3rd Singular (Neuter) It It der da
1st Plural (You + I) We Us Vzar Vza
1st Plural (They + I) We Us Ezar Eza
2nd Plural You You Trer Tre
3rd Plural They Them Zer Ze

The standard word order is subject-verb-object, as in English. Therefore, the object need not be marked to distinguish it from the subject: E.g.:

  • (mer) aimellen ce – "I love you"
  • (cer) aimendi me – "you love me"

Every verb has an extra part at the end that links Nominative Pronoun to the verb: E.g.:

  • ronellen (I go) = ron (go) + ellen
  • ronzen (they go) = ron (go) + zen


Person English (Nominative) English (Possessive) Cubreta
1st Singular My Mine Mar
2nd Singular Your Yours Car
3rd Singular (Male) His His Har
3rd Singular (Female) Her Hers Sciar
3rd Singular (Neuter) Its Its de
1st Plural (You + I) Our Ours Vaz
1st Plural (They+ I) Our Ours Eaz
2nd Plural Your Yours Trar
3rd Plural Their Theirs Zar

Grammar and Word Formation

Primitives: the small number of basic function words present in most languages—these allow us to describe the relationships between the major concepts we convey. These are basically prepositions and conjunctions, such as: e [of], on [and], olt [out], el [in], cimon [under].
Phrases, the basic unit of recognizable meaning in Cubreta, follow a "Subject+Verb+(Object)" order and noun phrases are "Substantive Final", which means that they start with the least important word, and are followed by additional words combining progressively to extend the meaning of the substantive, which comes last.

Verbs

Some words can act as verbs, depending on their places in the sentence .

Example of Verb Tenses
Tense Extra part Cubreta Text English Translation
Infinitive - lezen To read
Simple Past -t(e) Mer Lezentellen lin bakta. I (did) read the book.
Imperfect -(e)ng Mer lezenengellen lin bakta. I was reading the book.
Past Participle -te Lin lezente bakta / Lin bakta'tz lezente The read book / The book is read
Simple Present - Mer Lezenellen lin bakta. I (do) read the book.
Continuous Present -(i)ng Mer Lezeningellen lin bakta. I am reading the book.
Present Perfect -(e)m Mer Lezenemellen lin bakta. I have (just) read the book.
Future-in-Present quoro Mer quoro lezenellen lin bakta. I am just about to read the book / I am just going to read the book.
Future-in-Past quoro -t(e) Mer quoro Lezentellen lin bakta. I was about to read the book / I was going to read the book.
Simple Future vil- Mer villezenellen lin bakta. I shall/will read the book.
Future Perfect vil- -(e)m Mer villezenemellen lin bakta. I shall/will have read the book (by tomorrow).
Conditional be- Mer belezenellen lin bakta. I would read the book...
Imperative -i Lezeni. Read!
Negative ne- Mer nelezenellen lin bakta. I do not read the book/I am not reading the book.
Interrogative Don Don mer lezeningellen lin bakta? /Don mer lezen lin bakta? Am I reading the book? / Do I read the book?
Passive -sce Lin Bakta'tz Lezentellensce be me The book is/gets read by me.
Gerund -(e)scn (lin) lezenescn ('e lin bkta (The) reading (of the book...)
  • 1What is meant by "extra part" is the part used immediately before the verb or between the verb and the verb ID in order to demonstrate or affect its tense.

Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives

Adjectives, like the rest of the language, are not inflected. They do not change to fit the tense, number, gender, formality, or etc. of the nouns that they modify. They generally precede the word that they modify: Her ronteszen tur ye bik scquole. He went to a big school.

To create "opposites", put "an-, am-, no- and on-" as a prefix to the adjective.It is the equivalent of some of the uses on in- or un- in English

perferkto = perfect
onperfekto = not perfect
noszebuti = not beautiful (doesn't mean exactly ugly)
nam = name
alta-name = pronounce

(after prefixes more than 4 letters, a dash is used normally)

Demonstratives
daen = that
daez = those
dean = this
deaz = these

Adverbs

sante = late
zot = early
pessasz = yesterday
envasz = today
furvasz= tomorrow
subito = immediately

Conjunctions

alta = otherwise
berets = already
chufeit = unless
el zinon = in that case...
emchain = also
fine = finally
hetia = even...
na … na = neither...nor
naestem = almost
nauter = however
naut = but
on/o = and
pes que = after that
scait = perhaps
vice = instead of...
vign = or
vign … vign= either … or

Question and Answer Words

A word used to ask or answer a question of who, where, what, when, why, how or how much. These words form a set in a semi-systematic manner with a particle of the compound indicating abstract quantity (what person or thing, what place, what time, for what reason, in what manner, what is the amount) and the prefix/other particle indicating the specific function of the word (exactly which, all, some, negating, etc.). There are other ways to say the following correlatives, the table just shows the most basic and systematic of these:


Question
(What)
Indication
(This, that)
Indefinite
(Some)
Very Indefinite
(Any [whatever])
Universal
(Each)
Universal
(Every)
Negative
(No)
qo– ci, la; uno– ali– singu– panto– nuli–
Thing –ra ca?
(what?)
dean, daen
(this thing, that thing)
yeszies
(something)
amoszies
(anything)
igszies
(each thing)
ollszies
(everything)
naszies
(nothing)
Individual –pe ki?
(who?)
dean rent, daen rent
(this one; that one)
yerent
(someone)
amorent
(anyone)
igrent
(each one)
ollrent
(everyone; all)
narent
(no one)
Individual
ca?, kuec?
(what[horse]?, which [horse]?)
dean, daen
(this [horse]; that [horse])
ye, cam
(some [horse])
amo
(any [horse])
ig
(each [horse])
oll
(every [horse])
null
(no [horse])
Place –lo kede?
(where)
orda, bura
(there; here)
yeviszi
(somewhere)
amoviszi
(anywhere)
igviszi
(each place)
ollviszi
(everywhere)
naviszi
(nowhere)
Manner –mode Cek? Ca mode?
(how, in what way)
dean mode, daen mode
(thus; in this way, in that way)
yemode
(somehow)
amomode
(in any way)
igmode
(in each way)
ollmode
(in every way)
namode
(in no way, no-how)
Cause –ka vay?
(why; for what cause)
oncent dean/daen
(for this cause, for that cause)
yecent
(for some cause)
amocent
(for any cause)
igcent
(for each cause)
ollcent
(for all causes)
nacent
(for no cause)
Time –kron kai?
(when)
nuk, rang
(now, then)
yetempe
(sometime)
amotempe
(anytime whatever)
igtempe
(whenever)
olltempe
(always)
natempe
(never)
Amount –numera cand?
(how many)
dean ta, daen ta
(this many, that many)
yeta
(some number)
amota
(any number)
igta
(each number)
ollta
(every number)
non
(none)
Amount –metri cadr?
(how much)
dean adr, daen adr
(this much, that much)
ye adr
(some)
amo adr
(any)
ig adr
(each)
holl
(all)
non
(none)
What is the time? = Kai'tz?

Sample and Useful Words

Hello, greetings, salutations = Horo!
Welcome = Bonelantre (bonelance is informal/ for singular)
Please! =Bietder!
Sorry! = (mer) Tescziellen!
What is your name? = Ca'tz car nam?
My name is... = Mar nam etz …
Where am I = Kede mer yer?
How much? = Cand'tz?
Do you speak Cubreta = Don cer sbikendi Cubreta?
I don't understand you = Mer negotellen ce.
Thank you = Sepance
You're welcome = Bietder
Here's to your health = Salumte , Igujva
Bless you!/Gesundheit! = Gesontce
It is a nice day = Da'tz ye bon vasz
I love you = (mer) Aimellen ce!
Goodbye = Laubaoy
What is that? = Ca'tz daen?
That is...? = Daen'tz ... ?
How are you? = (cer) Cekendi?/ (cer) Cekden?
Good morning! = Bonsmorne
Good evening! = Bon astre
Good night! = Bon nasz
Well = Bon
Be well = di bon
Good/well = Bon
Well (healthy) = Salo
Ki = ron
A cat, the cat = ye krali, lin krali
Cats = kraliez
Dog = Tzogi
Pig = Cerdi
Bovine (cow/bull) = Govi
Horse = Zaldi
Frog = Grogi
Bird = Paszari
Bee = Haci
Spider = Araknidi
Fish = Piscki
A/an = ye
The = lin
water = aov
food = Horac
boy = puy
girl = ger
right = Raip
left = Kep

Prepositions

Prepositions: Cubreta-English Comparison
Cubreta Word English Word English Example Words
Ab Away from Abduct
Ad To / Towards Advance
Ana Up Anabolic
Anti Against Antibiotic
De Of / About / Pertaining to Describe
Dia Through Diagonal
Epi On Epicentre
Ex Out (of) / by (agent) Exterior
Infra Below / Under /Lesser Infrared / Inferior
Intra Inside Intracloud
Kata Down Catastrophe
Pla With Cooperate
konter Counter / Opposite Counter / Contrast
Miso Middle Mesopotamia
Minus Without / Lacking Minus
Margin Edge / Side Margin
Para Beside Parallel
Per By (instrumental) Per
Peri Around Pericarp
Po/Pas After Post (scriptum)
Pre/Pes Before Previous
Pro/Por For Pro (or con)
Proxi Near Proximity
Supra Over / Above Supranational
Tempo For a period of time Temporary
Tele Far Telephone
To(po) At place Topology
Trans Across Transition
Oltra Beyond Ultrasophisticated
Vice instead of Vice-president

Numbers

The following table uses a period (.) is used to group numbers in threes.

Numerals
Arabic Numeral English Name Cubreta Name
0 zero siequero
1 one yen
2 two den
3 three cen
4 four quan
5 five puan
6 six sen
7 seven huan
8 eight ogn
9 nine nen
10 ten ten
11 eleven tenen
12 twelve tenden
20 twenty denzer
22 twenty-two denzer den
100 one hundred yenscer
101 one hundred and one yenscer yen
1.000 one thousand yenmil
1.000.000 one million yenbil


نوشته شده در : پنجشنبه 6 مهر 1391  توسط : آرش پیوندی.    نظرات() .