In Cubreta, words always retain their original form, regardless of their function in a sentence. Thus, the same word can function as a verb, noun, adjective or preposition. Grammatical functions are taken over by a limited number of operator words and by the word order (syntax). Subject-Verb-Object order is the standard word order, and "adjectives" usually precede "nouns", and the "verbs" follow the tense particles and the "adverbs".
Cubreta is written with the Latin alphabet without special characters, there are some double and triple vowels (like au or ue) or consonants (like sc, sz, gn and scz). There is no X and W in Cubreta language. Most words in Cubreta are taken from Proto-Indo-European_language roots, while some are taken from Japanese and Chinese.
Alphabet and phonology
||/a/ or /æ/||a
|/t/||t||/d/||d||/i/ or /ɪ/||i||/χ/||q|
|/m/||m||/n/ 1||n||/e/ or /ɛ/||e||/tʃ/||c|
|/f/||f||/v/||v||/ɔ/ or /o/||o||/ʒ/||sz|
|/s/||s||/z/||z||/e/ or not pronounced||ue||/tʃ/||ti|
|/æ/ or /ɛ/||ae||/ij/}||ell, il|
- 1The practice of pronouncing n before a velar sound (g, q or k) as /ŋ/ is used in order to simplify pronunciation.
- 2First, pronounce /ʃ/, then /ʒ/. Combination of sc and sz
- 3It can be pronounce /h/ if the speaker is unable to pronounce /χ/, but it is uncommon.
Accent & Verbal Inflection
The stress/accent should be placed on the first vowel unless the word ends in a vowel ( or "ar","er","or" and "il" at the end). If this is the case the stress should be placed on the last vowel before the last consonant.
Vocal inflection in Cubreta is generally comparable to that of English- there usually is a rising inflection before a comma, semicolon, or terminal if interrogative (that is, if it is a question, the voice tends to "go upward" towards the end). A falling inflection is to occur before a full stop.
- Full-stops end sentences. They can be the normal full stop (.), the interrogative point (?), exclamation mark (!), and, theoretically, the interrobang.
- Semi-colon separates clauses, principal and subordinate.
- Colon precedes items of a catalogue. If three or more items occur in
a row, they should be separated with a comma and, prior to the final
item, the word "on" or "o" (and).
- Fe stude: biologi, kemi, on Français.
- Comma separates items from each other.
|Person||English (Nominative)||English (Accusative)||Cubreta (Nominative)||Cubreta (Accusative)|
|3rd Singular (Male)||He||Him||Her||He|
|3rd Singular (Female)||She||Her||Scier||Scie|
|3rd Singular (Neuter)||It||It||der||da|
|1st Plural (You + I)||We||Us||Vzar||Vza|
|1st Plural (They + I)||We||Us||Ezar||Eza|
The standard word order is subject-verb-object, as in English. Therefore, the object need not be marked to distinguish it from the subject: E.g.:
- (mer) aimellen ce – "I love you"
- (cer) aimendi me – "you love me"
Every verb has an extra part at the end that links Nominative Pronoun to the verb: E.g.:
- ronellen (I go) = ron (go) + ellen
- ronzen (they go) = ron (go) + zen
|Person||English (Nominative)||English (Possessive)||Cubreta|
|3rd Singular (Male)||His||His||Har|
|3rd Singular (Female)||Her||Hers||Sciar|
|3rd Singular (Neuter)||Its||Its||de|
|1st Plural (You + I)||Our||Ours||Vaz|
|1st Plural (They+ I)||Our||Ours||Eaz|
Grammar and Word Formation
- Primitives: the small number of basic function words present in most languages—these allow us to describe the relationships between the major concepts we convey. These are basically prepositions and conjunctions, such as: e [of], on [and], olt [out], el [in], cimon [under].
- Phrases, the basic unit of recognizable meaning in Cubreta, follow a "Subject+Verb+(Object)" order and noun phrases are "Substantive Final", which means that they start with the least important word, and are followed by additional words combining progressively to extend the meaning of the substantive, which comes last.
Some words can act as verbs, depending on their places in the sentence .
|Example of Verb Tenses|
|Tense||Extra part||Cubreta Text||English Translation|
|Simple Past||-t(e)||Mer Lezentellen lin bakta.||I (did) read the book.|
|Imperfect||-(e)ng||Mer lezenengellen lin bakta.||I was reading the book.|
|Past Participle||-te||Lin lezente bakta / Lin bakta'tz lezente||The read book / The book is read|
|Simple Present||-||Mer Lezenellen lin bakta.||I (do) read the book.|
|Continuous Present||-(i)ng||Mer Lezeningellen lin bakta.||I am reading the book.|
|Present Perfect||-(e)m||Mer Lezenemellen lin bakta.||I have (just) read the book.|
|Future-in-Present||quoro||Mer quoro lezenellen lin bakta.||I am just about to read the book / I am just going to read the book.|
|Future-in-Past||quoro -t(e)||Mer quoro Lezentellen lin bakta.||I was about to read the book / I was going to read the book.|
|Simple Future||vil-||Mer villezenellen lin bakta.||I shall/will read the book.|
|Future Perfect||vil- -(e)m||Mer villezenemellen lin bakta.||I shall/will have read the book (by tomorrow).|
|Conditional||be-||Mer belezenellen lin bakta.||I would read the book...|
|Negative||ne-||Mer nelezenellen lin bakta.||I do not read the book/I am not reading the book.|
|Interrogative||Don||Don mer lezeningellen lin bakta? /Don mer lezen lin bakta?||Am I reading the book? / Do I read the book?|
|Passive||-sce||Lin Bakta'tz Lezentellensce be me||The book is/gets read by me.|
|Gerund||-(e)scn||(lin) lezenescn ('e lin bkta||(The) reading (of the book...)|
- 1What is meant by "extra part" is the part used immediately before the verb or between the verb and the verb ID in order to demonstrate or affect its tense.
Adjectives & Adverbs
Adjectives, like the rest of the language, are not inflected. They do not change to fit the tense, number, gender, formality, or etc. of the nouns that they modify. They generally precede the word that they modify: Her ronteszen tur ye bik scquole. He went to a big school.
To create "opposites", put "an-, am-, no- and on-" as a prefix to the adjective.It is the equivalent of some of the uses on in- or un- in English
- perferkto = perfect
- onperfekto = not perfect
- noszebuti = not beautiful (doesn't mean exactly ugly)
- nam = name
- alta-name = pronounce
(after prefixes more than 4 letters, a dash is used normally)
- daen = that
- daez = those
- dean = this
- deaz = these
- sante = late
- zot = early
- pessasz = yesterday
- envasz = today
- furvasz= tomorrow
- subito = immediately
- alta = otherwise
- berets = already
- chufeit = unless
- el zinon = in that case...
- emchain = also
- fine = finally
- hetia = even...
- na … na = neither...nor
- naestem = almost
- nauter = however
- naut = but
- on/o = and
- pes que = after that
- scait = perhaps
- vice = instead of...
- vign = or
- vign … vign= either … or
Question and Answer Words
A word used to ask or answer a question of who, where, what, when, why, how or how much. These words form a set in a semi-systematic manner with a particle of the compound indicating abstract quantity (what person or thing, what place, what time, for what reason, in what manner, what is the amount) and the prefix/other particle indicating the specific function of the word (exactly which, all, some, negating, etc.). There are other ways to say the following correlatives, the table just shows the most basic and systematic of these:
(this thing, that thing)
|dean rent, daen rent
(this one; that one)
(what[horse]?, which [horse]?)
(this [horse]; that [horse])
|Manner||–mode||Cek? Ca mode?
(how, in what way)
|dean mode, daen mode
(thus; in this way, in that way)
(in any way)
(in each way)
(in every way)
(in no way, no-how)
(why; for what cause)
(for this cause, for that cause)
(for some cause)
(for any cause)
(for each cause)
(for all causes)
(for no cause)
|dean ta, daen ta
(this many, that many)
|dean adr, daen adr
(this much, that much)
- What is the time? = Kai'tz?
Sample and Useful Words
- Hello, greetings, salutations = Horo!
- Welcome = Bonelantre (bonelance is informal/ for singular)
- Please! =Bietder!
- Sorry! = (mer) Tescziellen!
- What is your name? = Ca'tz car nam?
- My name is... = Mar nam etz …
- Where am I = Kede mer yer?
- How much? = Cand'tz?
- Do you speak Cubreta = Don cer sbikendi Cubreta?
- I don't understand you = Mer negotellen ce.
- Thank you = Sepance
- You're welcome = Bietder
- Here's to your health = Salumte , Igujva
- Bless you!/Gesundheit! = Gesontce
- It is a nice day = Da'tz ye bon vasz
- I love you = (mer) Aimellen ce!
- Goodbye = Laubaoy
- What is that? = Ca'tz daen?
- That is...? = Daen'tz ... ?
- How are you? = (cer) Cekendi?/ (cer) Cekden?
- Good morning! = Bonsmorne
- Good evening! = Bon astre
- Good night! = Bon nasz
- Well = Bon
- Be well = di bon
- Good/well = Bon
- Well (healthy) = Salo
- Ki = ron
- A cat, the cat = ye krali, lin krali
- Cats = kraliez
- Dog = Tzogi
- Pig = Cerdi
- Bovine (cow/bull) = Govi
- Horse = Zaldi
- Frog = Grogi
- Bird = Paszari
- Bee = Haci
- Spider = Araknidi
- Fish = Piscki
- A/an = ye
- The = lin
- water = aov
- food = Horac
- boy = puy
- girl = ger
- right = Raip
- left = Kep
|Prepositions: Cubreta-English Comparison|
|Cubreta Word||English Word||English Example Words|
|Ad||To / Towards||Advance|
|De||Of / About / Pertaining to||Describe|
|Ex||Out (of) / by (agent)||Exterior|
|Infra||Below / Under /Lesser||Infrared / Inferior|
|konter||Counter / Opposite||Counter / Contrast|
|Minus||Without / Lacking||Minus|
|Margin||Edge / Side||Margin|
|Pro/Por||For||Pro (or con)|
|Supra||Over / Above||Supranational|
|Tempo||For a period of time||Temporary|
The following table uses a period (.) is used to group numbers in threes.
|Arabic Numeral||English Name||Cubreta Name|
|101||one hundred and one||yenscer yen|